Risk factor profile in patients who underwent coronary angiography at the Shisong Cardiac Centre, Cameroon

Peter Vanes Ebasone, Anastase Dzudie, Jean Claude Ambassa, Ba Hamadou, Liliane Kuate Mfekeu, Eugene Yeika, Sylvie Ndongo Amougou, Samuel Kingue


Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although there has been a drop in the prevalence and mortality from CAD in the western world, the reverse is happening in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of studies to support the rising burden of CAD, thus this information is needed to assist health care and policies planning in the region. The aim of this study was to find the predictors of CAD in patients who underwent coronary angiography (CA), the gold standard diagnostic test at the unique cardiac catheterization center in Cameroon.
Methods: Medical files of all patients who underwent CA at Shisong Cardiac Centre (SCC) between March 2010 and February 2017 were analyzed for risk factors and CA results. Comparisons were made using the Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests for frequencies and student t-test for means. The logistic regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Data was collected and analyzed using Epi Info
Results: Of 250 patients included in the study, 172 (68.80%) were males. Their mean age was 54.59±10.40 years. Most patients, 213 (85.20%) lived in an urban setting. The prevalence of CAD was 28.8%. The group of patients with CAD compared with those without CAD had a higher statistically significant proportion of males (86.11%, P<0.001), hypertension (70.83%, P<0.001), dyslipidemia (51.39%, P<0.001), diabetes (31.94%, P<0.001) and obesity (30.56% P=0.006). In multivariate analysis; diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and male gender remained significant predictors of CAD. We, however, found no association between family history of CAD, smoking and age and CAD. Among patients with CAD, 33 (45.83%) had two cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), 20 (27.78%) had one CVRF, 14 (19.44%) had three CVRF and 2 (2.78%) had four CVRF.
Conclusions: In our study, CAD affects the generation of breadwinners, predominantly males living in urban areas. Diabetes, hypertension, male gender and dyslipidemia are strong predictors of CAD in Cameroon. With several studies showing a widespread prevalence of these risk factors in Cameroon, CAD might not be as rare as previously believed.