Article Abstract

Heart failure in a semi-urban setting in Cameroon: clinical characteristics, etiologies, treatment and outcome

Authors: Clovis Nkoke, Ahmadou Musa Jingi, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde, Denis Teuwafeu, Cyrille Nkouonlack, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Anastase Dzudie


Background: Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. There is limited contemporary data on HF in rural and semi-urban settings in Cameroon in this era of epidemiological transition. We aimed at determining the demographic and clinical characteristics, etiologies treatment and outcome of patients admitted for HF in the Buea Regional Hospital.
Methods: We analyzed data from consecutive adult patients admitted for HF to the medical unit of the Buea regional Hospital between June 2016 and November 2017.
Results: Of the eighty-six consecutive patients admitted for heart failure, 48 (55.5%) were females. Their mean age was 59.4±18.3 years. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were present in 53.4%, 14% and 5.8% of patients respectively. Etiologies of heart failure were hypertensive heart disease (47.7%), Cor pulmonale (11.6%), dilated cardiomyopathy (9.3%), ischemic heart disease (9.3%), and rheumatic heart disease (5.8%). At discharge, treatment included; loop diuretics (97.9%), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (70.9%), beta blockers (36.9%), and aldosterone antagonist (50.6%). The median length of hospital stay was 7 days, and in hospital case fatality was 12.8%.
Conclusions: As reported in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, heart failure in this semi-urban Cameroonian population occurs at a younger age, with hypertensive heart disease being the most common cause and associated high in-hospital mortality.